Thank you, and I have a follow-up to my last question. In the case of the Catholic Church then, if it has fallen into heresy and schism, can it similarly be said that it is no longer has “assured manifestations of the Church”? In other words, when they are received into Orthodoxy without baptism at times, is this because Catholicism has assured manifestations of the Church or only as an act of pastoral economia? This is another topic I’ve heard many Orthodox responses to.

In your question, it would be best to use the precise expression 'Roman Catholic Church' instead of 'Catholic Church' since we Orthodox apply this expression to ourselves! The question of when a (local) Church ceases to become an assured manifestation of the Body of Christ...